Toyota Yaris: Sfi System / Pre-ignition Detected (P137800)

Toyota Yaris XP210 (2020-2022) Reapir and Service Manual / Engine & Hybrid System / G16e-gts (engine Control) / Sfi System / Pre-ignition Detected (P137800)

DESCRIPTION

If sudden early ignition (pre-ignition) occurs continuously in a short period of time, a DTC is stored. This pre-ignition is a phenomenon inherent in boosted engines. Atomized engine oil and detached deposits (carbon) cause ignition and promote knocking during low-speed, high-output operation. This is higher pressure knocking than normal knocking.

Pre-ignition is detected by the knock control sensor.

When pre-ignition occurs, the ECM limits output to suppress the pre-ignition. If pre-ignition occurs continuously, the fuel may be cut in some conditions, which may cause vehicle behavior that seems similar to hesitation or shift shock. This is normal engine control and not a malfunction.

As pre-ignition cannot be detected if a knock control sensor malfunction occurs, the same fail-safe control occurs as for strong knock detection.

HINT:

  • When this DTC is stored, the ECM enters fail-safe mode.
  • During fail-safe mode, the ECM limits the output.
  • Fail-safe mode continues until the ECM clears the DTC.

DTC No.

Detection Item

DTC Detection Condition

MIL

Note

P137800

Pre-ignition Detected

2 or more continuous pre-ignition prevention fuel-cut control operations (1 trip detection logic).

Continuous pre-ignition prevention fuel cut control: Sudden early ignition (pre-ignition) occurs 5 times or more continuously in a short period of time.

-

SAE: P1378

Trouble Area

Ignition system

  • Ignition malfunction of ignition coil assembly or spark plug

Fuel injection system

  • Decrease in fuel injection volume (for Direct Injection)

Lubrication system

  • High oil consumption
  • Dilute/deteriorated oil
  • Additive

Fuel system

  • Diesel fuel contamination
  • Addition of fuel additives
  • Fuel pump
  • Low quality fuel

Engine related

  • Accumulated deposit (in combustion chamber)

Intake system

  • Air leaks

Exhaust system

  • Clogged exhaust system component

HINT:

  • As strong knocking due to pre-ignition may be caused by multiple superimposed factors, it is important to comprehensively investigate all possible causes.
  • The risk of this occurring is increased if driving up a steep incline while towing when fixed in low gear, as low-speed, high-output operation occurs.

CAUTION / NOTICE / HINT

HINT:

  • Read Freeze Frame Data using the GTS. The ECM records vehicle and driving condition information as Freeze Frame Data the moment a DTC is stored. When troubleshooting, Freeze Frame Data can help determine if the vehicle was moving or stationary, if the engine was warmed up or not, if the air fuel ratio was lean or rich, and other data from the time the malfunction occurred.
  • If the customer reports a knocking sound or drivability problems, check the "Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #1 History 1 to Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #3 History 4" items in the Data List.
  • Explain to the customer that this is normal control to prevent pre-ignition (protect the engine) if the (distance traveled recorded in the appropriate Data List subtracted from the distance traveled in the "Distance for Control" item in the Data List) matches the (distance traveled indicated by the customer subtracted from the current distance traveled).

PROCEDURE

1.

CHECK ANY OTHER DTCS OUTPUT (IN ADDITION TO DTC P137800)

(a) Read the DTCs.

Powertrain > Engine > Trouble Codes

Result

Proceed to

P137800 is output

A

P137800 and other DTCs are output

B

HINT:

If any DTCs other than P137800 are output, troubleshoot those DTCs first.

B

GO TO DTC CHART

A

2.

READ FREEZE FRAME DATA

(a) Using the GTS, confirm the vehicle conditions recorded in the freeze frame data which were present when the DTC was stored.

HINT:

  • Check the freeze frame data sets recorded the moment the DTC was stored and after the DTC was stored.
  • Using the freeze frame data, confirm the vehicle conditions when the DTC was stored, such as if the engine was idling with the shift state neutral or if the vehicle was being driven at a constant speed or accelerating.
Confirmation Item

Vehicle Speed

Short FT Bank 1

Engine Speed

Long FT Bank 1

Vehicle Load

Fuel System Status Bank 1

Coolant Temperature Controlling Value

Misfire Count Cylinder #1 to #6

NEXT

3.

READ VALUE USING GTS

(a) Enter the following menus.

Powertrain > Engine > Data List

Tester Display

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #1 History 1

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #1 History 2

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #1 History 3

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #1 History 4

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #2 History 1

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #2 History 2

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #2 History 3

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #2 History 4

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #3 History 1

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #3 History 2

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #3 History 3

Consecutive Prevention Cylinder #3 History 4

Fuel Cut History 1

Fuel Cut History 2

Fuel Cut History 3

Fuel Cut History 4

(b) According to the freeze frame data, attempt to reproduce the vehicle conditions that were present when the DTC was stored and read the Data List.

Result

Proceed to

Values are displayed for multiple consecutive prevention cylinder histories of a specific cylinder

A

Values are displayed for multiple consecutive prevention cylinder histories of all cylinders

B

HINT:

  • If values are displayed for multiple consecutive prevention cylinder histories of a specific cylinder, check the value of freeze frame data items Misfire Count Cylinder #1 through #6. If the misfire count of that cylinder is high, the cylinder is malfunctioning.
  • If the vehicle conditions when the DTC was stored cannot be reproduced, read the value of freeze frame data items Misfire Count Cylinder #1 through #6 to determine if only a specific cylinder or all cylinders are malfunctioning.
B

GO TO STEP 6

A

4.

CHECK IGNITION SYSTEM

(a) Check the ignition system.

HINT:

  • Interchange the ignition coil assembly and spark plug of the malfunctioning cylinder with those of a known good cylinder and according to the freeze frame data, check if the malfunctioning cylinder returns to normal.
  • Read the Data List items Misfire Count Cylinder #1 to #6 while performing this procedure to determine which cylinder is malfunctioning.

Result

Proceed to

The malfunctioning cylinder returns to normal

A

The malfunctioning cylinder does not return to normal

B

A

GO TO STEP 22

B

5.

INSPECT OTHER RELATED COMPONENTS

(a) Check the power source circuit, wire harness and connectors.

NEXT

GO TO STEP 22

6.

READ VALUE USING GTS (SHORT FT B1S1, LONG FT B1S1)

(a) Start the engine.

(b) Enter the following menus.

Powertrain > Engine > Data List

Tester Display

Short FT B1S1

Long FT B1S1

(c) According to the freeze frame data, attempt to reproduce the vehicle conditions that were present when the DTC was stored and read the Data List.

Data List

Result

Proceed to

Short FT B1S1 + Long FT B1S1

-20% or higher, or less than 20%

A

Short FT B1S1 + Long FT B1S1

Other than above

B

HINT:

  • If the vehicle conditions when the DTC was stored cannot be reproduced, read the value of freeze frame data items Short FT Bank 1 and Long FT Bank 1 to perform judgment.
  • "Total FT Bank 1" is used to detect an abnormal air fuel ratio. As the value of "Total FT Bank 1" is corrected by the ECM before it is displayed in the Data List, the displayed value may not be equal to the sum of the measured "Short FT B1S1" and "Long FT B1S1".
  • An abnormally lean or rich tendency can be checked by reading the following Data List items: A/F Learn Value Idle Bank 1, A/F Learn Value Low Bank 1, A/F Learn Value Mid No.1 Bank 1, A/F Learn Value Mid No.2 Bank 1, A/F Learn Value High Bank 1, A/F Learn Value Idle (Port) Bank 1, A/F Learn Value Low (Port) Bank 1, A/F Learn Value Mid No.1 (Port) Bank 1, A/F Learn Value Mid No.2 (Port) Bank 1 and A/F Learn Value High (Port) Bank 1.
  • The following may cause a lean air fuel ratio (an operating range in which the air fuel ratio learned value correction is +20% or more):
    1. Decrease in fuel injector assembly injection volume
    2. Decrease in mass air flow meter sub-assembly output (due to existence of foreign matter)
    3. Air leaks in intake system after mass air flow meter sub-assembly
    4. Decrease in fuel pressure (at fuel filter, fuel pump, fuel main valve assembly or fuel suction plate sub-assembly)
  • On vehicles which the learning value for each operating range can be checked, if the value of "A/F Learn Value High Bank 1" or "A/F Learn Value High (Port) Bank 1" only is corrected to the positive side, a malfunction in the fuel system (clogging of the fuel pump or fuel filter) is suspected.
  • On vehicles which the learning value for each operating range can be checked, if the value of "A/F Learn Value Idle Bank 1", "A/F Learn Value Low Bank 1" or "A/F Learn Value Low (Port) Bank 1" only is corrected to the positive side, an air leak after the mass air flow meter sub-assembly is suspected.
  • The following may cause a rich air fuel ratio (an operating range in which the air fuel ratio learned value correction is -20% or less):
    1. Increase in the fuel injector assembly injection volume
    2. Purge VSV system
B

GO TO STEP 11

A

7.

INTERVIEW THE CUSTOMER

(a) Interview the customer for details about when oil maintenance was last performed and what brand of oil was used.

(1) Check whether the specified engine oil grade was used and that engine oil additives were not used.

(2) Perform an engine oil inspection (check the oil level and for dirt, etc.).

Click here

OK:

No problem with the engine oil.

HINT:

  • Strong knocking due to pre-ignition may be due to ignition of atomized engine oil under certain conditions.
  • The risk of this occurring may be increased if the engine oil used is not the specified oil grade.
  • The risk of this occurring may be increased if engine oil additives have been used.
  • As strong knocking due to pre-ignition may be caused by multiple superimposed factors, even if the engine oil inspection result is NG, perform the following inspections after replacing the engine oil.
NEXT

8.

INTERVIEW THE CUSTOMER

(a) Interview the customer for details about what fuel they have used and smell the fuel to check for the following.

  • If the fuel smells like a mixture of gasoline and diesel fuel, etc.
  • If there is a possibility that diesel fuel may have be added by mistake.
  • If the malfunction started after refueling at an unfamiliar gas station.
  • If fuel additives have been used.

HINT:

Even if any of the above conditions are met, if the engine is not malfunctioning, fill the fuel tank at a different gas station and check if the malfunction recurs.

Result

Proceed to

None of the above conditions are met and the engine is not malfunctioning

A

One or more of the above conditions are met and the engine is malfunctioning

B

HINT:

  • Strong knocking due to pre-ignition may be caused by the type fuel used.
  • The risk of pre-ignition occurring may be increased depending on the ingredients of fuel additives used.
  • Even if no abnormalities are found in this inspection, if a malfunction occurs after the vehicle has been refueled, a problem with the fuel is suspected.
B

GO TO STEP 10

A

9.

INSPECT OTHER RELATED COMPONENTS

(a) Check for accumulated deposits (carbon) and remove them. Deposits (carbon) may act as an ignition source if they become detached, leading to pre-ignition.

HINT:

Strong knocking due to pre-ignition may be caused by detached deposits burning inside the cylinder.

NEXT

GO TO STEP 22

10.

REPLACE FUEL

(a) Replace the fuel.

NEXT

GO TO STEP 23

11.

INSPECT MASS AIR FLOW METER SUB-ASSEMBLY

Click here

NG

GO TO STEP 13

OK

12.

CHECK INTAKE SYSTEM

(a) Check for air leaks or blockage in the intake system components. If a connection problem or foreign matter is found, repair the connection or remove the foreign matter.

HINT:

  • If there is foreign matter in the intake system components, remove it before proceeding to the next step.
  • If there is no foreign matter in the intake system components, check for foreign matter in the mass air flow meter sub-assembly. If there is foreign matter in the mass air flow meter sub-assembly, remove it.
NEXT

GO TO STEP 22

13.

PERFORM ACTIVE TEST USING GTS (D-4S (INJECTION VOLUME))

(a) Start the engine and warm it up until the engine coolant temperature is 75°C (167°F) or higher with all the accessories switched off.

(b) Warm up the air fuel ratio sensor at an engine speed of 2500 rpm for 90 seconds.

(c) Idle the engine.

(d) Enter the following menus.

Powertrain > Engine > Active Test

Active Test Display

D-4S (Injection Volume)

Data List Display

Injection Mode

A/F (O2) Sensor Current B1S1

A/F (O2) Sensor Current B1S2

(e) According to the display on the GTS, perform the Active Test and check the vehicle conditions when increasing and decreasing the fuel injection volume of port injection and direct injection.

NOTICE:

  • The air fuel ratio sensor (sensor 1) has an output delay of a few seconds and the air fuel ratio sensor (sensor 2) has a maximum output delay of approximately 20 seconds.
  • Read the output value immediately after warming up the air fuel ratio sensor(sensor 1) and air fuel ratio sensor (sensor 2) to avoid an inaccurate reading due to a sensor cooling.

HINT:

  • Increase and decrease the fuel injection volume of the port injection and direct injection simultaneously and check the vehicle condition.
  • The Control the Injection Volume for A/F Sensor operation lowers the fuel injection volume by 12.5% or increases the injection volume by 12.5%.

Standard:

GTS Display

(Sensor)

Injection Volume

Voltage

A/F (O2) Sensor Current B1S1

(Air fuel ratio (sensor 1))

12.5%

Below -0.075 mA

-12.5%

More than 0.037 mA

A/F (O2) Sensor Current B1S2

(Air fuel ratio (sensor 2))

12.5%

Below -0.86 mA

-12.5%

More than 0.33 mA

Result

Proceed to

Output voltage values are abnormal

A

Malfunction disappears when fuel injection volume is increased

B

Malfunction is still present when fuel injection volume is increased, even if output voltage values are normal

C

B

GO TO STEP 15

C

GO TO STEP 16

A

14.

REPLACE AIR FUEL RATIO SENSOR (SENSOR 1) AND AIR FUEL RATIO SENSOR (SENSOR 2)

(a) Replace the air fuel ratio sensor (sensor 1).

Click here

HINT:

Perform "Inspection After Repair" after replacing the air fuel ratio sensor (sensor 1).

Click here

(b) Replace the air fuel ratio sensor (sensor 2).

Click here

HINT:

Perform "Inspection After Repair" after replacing the air fuel ratio sensor (sensor 2).

Click here

NEXT

GO TO STEP 23

15.

REPLACE FUEL INJECTOR ASSEMBLY

(a) Replace the fuel injector assemblies of all cylinders.

HINT:

Perform "Inspection After Repair" after replacing the fuel injector assembly.

Click here

NEXT

GO TO STEP 23

16.

PERFORM ACTIVE TEST USING GTS (ACTIVATE THE CIRCUIT RELAY (BRUSHLESS))

(a) Enter the following menus.

Powertrain > Engine > Active Test

Tester Display

Activate the Circuit Relay (Brushless)

(b) When performing the Active Test, check for an operating sound from the fuel pump (for low pressure side).

OK:

Activate the Circuit Relay (Brushless)

Specified Condition

ON

Operating sound heard

OFF

Operating sound not heard

NG

GO TO STEP 21

OK

17.

INSPECT FUEL PUMP (LOW PRESSURE SIDE)

(a) Attach a fuel pressure gauge and check the fuel pressure when cranking the engine and after stopping the engine.

Click here

Standard:

Vehicle State

Specified Condition

Cranking engine

196 to 833 kPa (2.0 to 8.5 kgf/cm2, 28 to 121 psi)

5 minutes after stopping engine

98 kPa (1.0 kgf/cm2, 14 psi) or higher

HINT:

  • If there is foreign matter such as iron particles on the fuel pump (for low pressure side), remove it.
  • Make sure that there are no leaks from the fuel lines, signs of fuel leakage or fuel odors.
  • If the air fuel ratio becomes lean only when the engine is running under a high load and at a high engine speed, clogging of the fuel filter is suspected.
NG

GO TO STEP 20

OK

18.

READ VALUE USING GTS (FUEL PRESSURE (HIGH))

(a) Start the engine and warm it up until the engine coolant temperature is 75°C (167°F) or higher with all the accessories switched off.

(b) Enter the following menus.

Powertrain > Engine > Data List

Tester Display

Fuel Pressure (High)

(c) Read the values.

Standard:

3000 rpm

2800 to 20000 kPag.

HINT:

The A/C switch and all accessory switches should be off, and the neutral should be selected, and the engine should be fully warmed up.

NG

GO TO STEP 22

OK

19.

INSPECT OTHER RELATED COMPONENTS

(a) Inspect other related components.

HINT:

If the malfunctioning part could not be determined by performing the preceding inspections, one of the following malfunctions is suspected.

  • Deposits in the intake manifold or on an intake valve
  • Delay in fuel supply due to adherence of the fuel to the deposits
NEXT

GO TO STEP 22

20.

INSPECT RELATED PARTS

(a) Inspect the following fuel pump (for low pressure side) related parts:

  • Fuel suction plate sub-assembly
  • Fuel main valve assembly
  • Fuel lines and connecting parts
  • Fuel filter
NEXT

GO TO STEP 22

21.

INSPECT FUEL PUMP CONTROL SYSTEM

(a) Inspect the fuel pump control system.

NEXT

22.

REPAIR OR REPLACE MALFUNCTIONING PARTS

(a) Repair or replace the malfunctioning part.

(b) Perform "Inspection After Repair" after repairing or replacing the malfunctioning part.

Click here

NEXT

23.

CONDUCT CONFIRMATION TEST

(a) Check that the engine has returned to normal.

NEXT

24.

CLEAR DTC

(a) Clear the DTCs.

Powertrain > Engine > Clear DTCs
NEXT

END

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